# Category: 1st Year

#### Internal Energy and Enthalpy: Definitions, Examples, Significance

Internal energy and enthalpy are thermodynamic properties used to describe the state and behavior of a system, such as a gas or a fluid. They are essential concepts in the…

#### The Four Laws of Thermodynamics Simplified

Thermodynamics is governed by a set of fundamental principles known as the laws of thermodynamics. These laws provide the foundation for understanding and predicting the behavior of energy and matter…

#### Understanding the Fundamentals of Thermodynamics: Definitions, Scope, and Limitations

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the study of energy, work, heat, and the properties of matter at various states, particularly with regard to temperature,…

#### Mode, Median, and Mean: Key Tools in Data Analysis

Mean (Average): Definition: The mean, also known as the average, is calculated by adding up all the values in a dataset and then dividing the sum by the number of…

#### Accuracy vs. Precision: Key Concepts in Measurement

Accuracy and precision are two important concepts in measurement and data analysis, often used in various fields such as science, engineering, and statistics. They describe how close measurements or data…

#### Navigating Errors: A Comprehensive Guide to Precision Enhancement

Errors, whether in scientific experiments, engineering projects, or everyday decisions, can undermine precision and reliability. This guide delves into the origins and types of errors, from systematic and random errors…

#### The Ultimate Guide to Rounding Off: Techniques and Tips

Rounding off rules are guidelines for approximating a number to a specified degree of accuracy, often expressed as a certain number of decimal places or significant figures. These rules help…

#### Quantum numbers and their calculation

Definition: Quantum numbers are a set of four values that are used to describe the position and energy of the electron in an atom. Alternatively, quantum numbers are the numbers…

#### (n+l) rule and its applications

(n+l) Rule From this rule, we can get information about the difference in energy between two orbitals. According to the Aufbau principle, electrons are filled into atomic orbitals in the…

#### Periodic properties: Electronegativity

When two different atoms in a molecule are bonded together by a covalent bond, the electron pair forming the the covalent bond is not shared equally by both the atoms.…