Category: MSc.( Inorganic Branch)

Heavy Metal Pollution: Chromium

After studying this lecture, you will be able to: Know the importance of Cr(III) and which oxidation of Cr between +3 and +6 is more toxic. Discuss the sources of Cr exposure Learn about the entry routes of chromium into the human body Describe most common forms of Cr-compounds and their uses Discuss transport mechanism of Cr from tannery wastes to human body know the symptoms of chromium toxicity and…


After finishing this lecture you will be able: Know the five soil forming factors, and understand how they influence on soil properties Learn about the types and textures of soil within a soil profile. Determine soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Discuss the effects of soil pH on cation-exchange capacity and availability of nutrients. Discuss and understand the importance of essential plant nutrients List the available sources of macro and…

Hazardous wastes

After finishing this lecture, you will be able to : Understand key terms associated with hazardous waste. Discuss the principles related to listed hazardous waste. Describe different (i.e. Physical, chemical and biological) processes, that determine the transformation and ultimate fates of hazardous chemical species in the hydrosphere. Classify hazardous wastes in the atmosphere and explain their impact on human health. Outline disposal methods for hazardous waste. Source: Environmental Chemistry and…


  Presently, there are two well-known theories about the mechanism of arsenic contamination in groundwater. These are oxidation and oxy-hydroxide reduction theory. The oxidation theory is so far the accepted theory. Pyrite Oxidation Hypothesis Arsenic is believed to be found in particular sulphide minerals ( pyrites ) which are deposited within the aquifer sediments . The reducing of groundwater table due to over exploitation of groundwater for irrigation has initiated…

Adverse Effect of Mercury (Hg)

Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in air, water and soil. Human activity is the main cause of mercury release to the environment at a poisonous   level. Mercury exists in various forms: elemental, organic, inorganic. These forms of mercury (Hg) differ in their degree of toxicity and in their effects on the nervous, digestive and immune system and on lungs, kidney, skin, and eyes. A highly toxic…

A short note on Cadmium: Source and Toxic Effect

Cadmium(Cd): Cadmium is highly toxic metal. Occurrence: The natural sources of cadmium are volcanic activity, spray from oceans and forest fires. Anthropogenic source: Human activity increases the amount of cadmium to the atmosphere as compared to natural sources. Coal mining, coal combustion, non-ferrous metal mining, refineries, burning of refuse iron and steel industries and phosphate fertilizers are most important options for cadmium. Tobacco that contains cadmium is finely distributed in…

A short note on Mercury: Biochemical effect, Toxicity, and Toxicology

Introduction: Mercury is a nonessential trace metal constituting 0.00003% by weight of earth crust. It is extracted mainly from its sulfide ore, cinnabar (Hg). The biochemical effect, Toxicity, and Toxicology: Hg causes Minamata diseases. The methylmercury compounds present in the effluent wastes discharged into the Minamata Bay were gradually bio-concentrated by fish and shellfish in the bay which provided the sea-food for many families along its shores. The ailment became…

A short review on the treatment of heavy metal toxicity

Treatment for Mercury toxicity: Treatment consists of introducing in the stomach, a source of sulfhydryl rich protein such as milk or raw eggs. As soon as mercury intoxication is suspected intramuscular injection of dimercaprol or penicillamine is given to chelate the mercury and accelerate its excretion. In the absence of the metal chelating agents, isotonic NaCl solution is infused in amounts as much as 10 its per day to produce…

All About Arsenic: You asked for this!

Arsenic, 33As Introduction: Arsenic is a concoction component with image As and nuclear number 33. Arsenic happens in numerous minerals, as a rule in the mix with sulfur and metals, yet in addition to an unadulterated natural precious stone. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has different allotropes; however, just the dim frame is essential to the industry. Since the soonest of times harms have been utilized as a method for settling…

Toxicity of Heavy Metals

Toxicity of lead (Pb): Lead poisoning is a form of metal poisoning due to lead in our body. The human brain is considered the most sensitive. Symptoms can include abdominal discomfort, constipation, headaches, irritability memory troubles, inability to have children and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of other unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems some of the effects are permanent….

May 2023



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